Glossary of Publishing Terms
BILL ACKERMANN, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS PRESS
Advance on/against royalties Payment to an author in anticipation of royalties a book is predicted to earn. In most cases, the author is not compelled to return the advance, even if it exceeds total royalties eventually earned.
Advance orders Orders placed by booksellers and others in advance of a book's publication date; generated by the publisher's early sales efforts, the quantity of advance orders can help determine the number of copies to print, price of the book, and extent of promotion.
Affiliated relationship A contractual arrangement between a small publisher (affiliate) and a (usually) larger publisher who agrees to handle all details of warehousing, shipping, and billing, for an agreed-upon percentage of the net billing.
Against the grain (or across the grain) Perpendicular to the direction in which the fibers of a piece of paper lie.
American Booksellers Association (ABA) The national trade association, founded in 1900, for operators of retail bookstores.
American Library Association National professional association of librarians and others interested in the educational, social, and cultural responsibilities of libraries. Founded in 1876.
Approval copy A book sent to teachers/professors accompanied by an invoice seeking payment or return of the book within a specified period, for consideration for purchase by or recommendation to students.
Approval plan An agreement between a library and a publisher or wholesaler under which the latter is given the responsibility of selecting and supplying all current books published in the subject areas, levels, countries, or languages specified by the library. In most approval plans, returns are permitted.
Art All illustrations used in preparing a job for printing.
Association of American Publishers (AAP) The national trade association of publishers of general, educational, trade, reference, religious, scientific, technical, and medical books. Formed by a merger in 1970 of the American Book Publishers Council and the American Educational Publishers Institute.
Author's advance Payment or payments made by a publisher to an author before sales of the book have properly earned the author any income. The advance may be the entire sum an author will receive for the book, which makes it work for hire, or, more commonly, the money may be an advance on royalties. Traditionally, the author's advance, which is determined during negotiation of a contract between author and publisher, was paid half on signing the contract and half on delivery of the manuscript. In recent years, the advance is more likely to be paid out over a longer period of time, e.g., a third on signing, a third on delivery of manuscript, and a third on actual publication of the book.
Author's alterations (AA) Changes made on typeset copy by author or editor. Contracts usually specify that the cost of author's alterations above a certain percentage of the typesetting cost are to be charged to the author.
Author's discount The percentage less than list price at which an author is able to buy copies of his or her book directly from the publisher. An individual matter set by each author's contract, the discount may range from 20 to 40 percent, and it may apply to books other than the author's own.
Author's earn-out The point at which an author's earned royalties equal the author's advance. To earn out is to reach this final equation.
Author's questionnaire A form that authors are asked to complete and return to the publisher to provide guidance or advice on marketing and promotion plans (including names of personal contacts to solicit blurbs for jacket copy).
Author's rights Under the U.S. Copyright Act of 1976, the author of a copyrighted work has the right to: 1) reproduce the work; 2) prepare derivative works based on it; 3) distribute the work to the public; 4) perform the work publicly; and 5) display the work publicly. These rights may be assigned under contract separately or together. The term author includes the employer in the case of works made for hire.
Automatic distribution A procedure in which a publisher or wholesaler supplies books to a bookstore according to a determination of appropriate quantities. In trade publishing, quantities are usually subject to the dealer's acceptance. Fully automated distribution was at one time customary in the mass market paperback industry.
Backlist A publisher's available titles that were printed and released prior to the current season. Some publishers include the prior list in their definition of frontlist.
Book club rights The rights purchased by a book club allowing it to offer a book to its membership. The rights may grant the club permission to print its own edition, or they may involve the club's acquisition of copies of the book printed by the original publisher.
Book fair An exhibition of books and related material, along with talks by authors and illustrators, and other events. Also may be a trading center for the sale of books and rights and the making of publishing and copublishing arrangements.
Book Industry Study Group (BISG) An organization of publishers, booksellers, librarians, book manufacturers, and suppliers, formed in 1976 for the purpose of promoting and supporting research that will enable the various sectors of the book industry to realize professional and business plans. BISG collects and compiles statistics and issues research reports on the book industry, including the annual publication, Book Industry Trends.
Book leasing plan A wholesaler program in which for a set monthly fee libraries can lease and return to the wholesaler high-demand titles in exchange for other titles when demand changes.
Book packager Also called a packager or a book producer. An individual or company that assembles components necessary for book publication - any combination of author, manuscript, book designer, editor, camera-ready copy, printer, or finished book - and sells the property in a specific state of completion to a publisher that will release and market the book as its own or as an acknowledged copublishing project.
Bulk The degree of thickness of paper.
Card deck Also expressed as direct-response advertising, business-reply card mailings, co-op mailings, loose-deck packets, action postcards, postcard mailings, product inquiry service, etc. The card deck is a collection of business-reply cards usually in loose-deck or booklet format, each containing an advertisement that the recipient can complete and mail back (usually postage free) to an advertiser to receive a product, service, or additional information.
Circulation-builder Books given as a reward to subscribers or for renewing a newspaper or magazine subscription.
Commissioned representative See Publisher's representative / sales representative
Common Business Oriented Language (COBOL) A programming language for business applications.
Cooperative advertising In common parlance, coop (pronounced and alternatively spelled co-op) advertising: the practice by which a publisher pays partial or total cost of an advertisement placed by a retailer to promote the publisher's book or books. The advertising, usually requiring a complex contractual arrangement between retailer and publisher, can appear in either the press or the broadcast media.
Copublication A book resulting from the joint efforts of two or more publishers. The venture may involve companies of more than one nation, although the work may be produced in one language or several languages in a single country. In either case, there is nearly always a sharing of developmental costs and/or production costs, which otherwise may make publication of a book economically impossible for a single publisher.
Copy Any furnished material (typewritten manuscript, pictures, artwork, etc.) to be used in the production of a book.
Copyright An exclusive right granted by the federal government to the possessor to publish and sell literary, musical, and other artistic materials.
Cover paper A term applied to a variety of papers used for covers of catalogs, brochures, booklets, and similar pieces.
Cover price The retail price of a book suggested by its publisher and printed on the dust jacket or cover.
Decoy A fictitious name inserted into a mailing list to monitor list usage.
Direct Marketing Association (DMA) Oldest and largest international trade association representing users, creators, and suppliers of direct-mail advertising and other direct marketing techniques.
Discount (Publishing) A percentage deducted from the list (retail) price of a book, thereby determining the cost of the book to the dealer purchasing it from the publisher or wholesaler. Thus, a $10 book sold to a dealer at 40 percent discount costs $6 and from this 40 percent difference, the store's operating costs and profit must be derived.
Trade discounts Also called long discounts. A method established for selling general books to retailers, scale from 30%-45% and upward (depending on the individual publisher and quantities purchased). A trade discount schedule is printed by a publisher to announce the variations in discounts dictated by the number of books ordered. Legally, a publisher must offer the same trade discount schedule to all booksellers.
Short discounts Lower discounts, offered on the relatively few retail sales of books ordinarily sold directly to professional persons or institutions.
Library discounts Special discounts offered to library purchasers.
Professional or courtesy discounts Discounts offered to individuals.
Cash discounts Discounts (e.g., 2% off the total of a bill if it is paid in 30 days or less) offered for prompt payment of an invoice.
Dummy A preliminary layout showing the position of illustrations and text as they are to appear in the final reproduction. A set of blank pages made up in advance to show the size, shape, form, and general style of a piece of printing.
Escalation clause Clause in an author's contract that entitles the author to additional or increased payments from the publisher should the book in question achieve certain measures of success. These may include one or more appearances on a best-seller list, a movie sale, or a book club sale. Another escalation clause may enable the author to earn a higher royalty rate as the number of copies sold reaches specified levels.
Estimated liability A definite obligation of the firm, the exact amount of which cannot be determined until a later date.
Etch In photoengraving, to produce an image on a plate by chemical or electrolytic action. In offset-lithography, an acidified gum solution used to desensitize the nonprinting areas of the plate; also, an acid solution added to the fountain water to help keep nonprinting areas of the plate free of ink.
Examination copy A free or on-approval sample of a book given to a prospective buyer (the term suggests an educator) who will, the publisher hopes, study the work, approve of it, and then adopt the book, resulting in multiple orders for institutional use.
First serial rights The right to reproduce a portion or the entirety of a book in a magazine or periodical in one or more parts before the book's official publication date.
Floor In bidding for paperback reprint or other rights to a book or manuscript, a first serious offer, generally a sum of some size that represents the least amount for which rights to the book will be sold, even though the seller will try to better it by interesting other potential buyers in the property. A floor may also be established by a seller as the price under which a book or manuscript will not be sold.
Folio Page number.
Font In composition, the complete assignment of type of one size and face.
Footline Name of the publication and date of issue, placed as a small line of type somewhere in relation to the folio. The folio-and-footline is an important element on every page, usually placed in a lower corner, but nowadays often placed elsewhere, to give the publication an up-to-date quality with little effort.
Foreign rights The right to publish a book, whether in its own language or in translation, outside its country of origin.
Frontlist The group of new books a publisher is offering for sale in the current or upcoming season. Some publishers consider the immediate prior season's books part of their frontlist.
Fulfillment The procedures entailed in warehousing, shipping, and collection, during which a publisher processes the orders it receives, sends out books, and supplies invoices to its customers.
Galley proof A proof taken of type standing in a galley, before it is made up into pages.
Gross margin In accounting: the difference between revenue from sales and the cost of goods sold; also called gross margin from sales. In publishing: the amount of total sales revenue less plant and running (also called unit) costs, expressed as a percentage. In retail bookselling, the difference between the retailer's cost of product, with discounts, and the retail sales price.
Halftone The reproduction of continuous-tone artwork, such as a photograph, through a crossline or contact screen, which converts the image into dots of various sizes.
Independent distributor Frequently shortened to ID; a wholesaler who specializes in the distribution of magazines and paperbacks to newsstands, supermarkets, and outlets other than bookstores. ID's are generally local or regional in coverage of markets.
Invoice symbols The following symbols are often used on publishers' invoices:
BO Back order
C, OC Order canceled
COR Cash on receipt
CWO Cash with order
EX See explanation herewith; or full exchange on returns
NE, NEP New edition pending
NO, NOP Not our publication, cannot supply
NYP Not yet published
OP Out of print
OPC Out of print, canceled
OPP Out of print at present
OPS Out of print, searching
OS Out of stock
OSC Out of stock, canceled
OSF Out of stock, to follow
OSI Out of stock indefinitely
OST Out of stock temporarily
RPND Reprinting, no date
TOP Temporarily out of print
TOS Temporarily out of stock
W Will advise in a few days
XR No returns permitted
ISBN (International Standard Book Number) An international standard for exclusive identification of books. The ISBN identifies one title, or edition of a title, from one specific publisher, and is unique to that title or edition.
Italic The style of letters that slope forward, in distinction from upright, or roman, letters. Used to give words emphasis and for some titles.
Job lot Often a combination of titles forming a singular group, books offered by a publisher or wholesaler at special low prices to close out or cut down stock.
Jobbers Large-volume buyers of hardcover and softcover trade titles for resale to retail bookstores and libraries. Jobbers are distinct from wholesalers in the inventory they carry and the services they offer, although recent years have witnessed a blurring of the distinction.
Kerning In typesetting, reducing the space between two characters so that part of their letter shapes overlap.
Launch meeting The first presentation by an editor of forthcoming titles to the marketing and sales staff. The first step in defining the publisher's seasonal list, these meetings enable editorial, marketing, sales, and production staff to discuss the marketing and production requirements for each title. Based on the launch meeting presentation and discussion, the marketing director will project a first printing and, at a later point, will develop the marketing plan through discussion with individual departments.
Lead title(s) The one (or more) major book(s) on a publisher's seasonal list.
List All the titles a publisher has available for sale; includes the entire backlist, the new books for the current season (the frontlist), and forthcoming books. A publisher's spring list, on the other hand, is the roster of books scheduled for release during the spring season. Seasonal lists are usually the province of hardcover and trade paperbacks and may be issued twice a year (spring and fall) or three times a year.
List price The price to the retail consumer as suggested by the publisher; sometimes printed on the jacket or cover.
List segmentation A means of targeting a mailing list to a selected segment of a larger mailing list, from which one or more common characteristics can be isolated, such as buyers of books in a certain subject area or above a certain price, buyers from a given geographic region or from a certain year, and the like.
List selection A selected part of a mailing list that may be rented separately from the entire list. See List segmentation
Literary agent One who acts on behalf of the author to find a publisher for a written or proposed manuscript and who handles the subsequent subsidiary rights not acquired by the publisher; sometimes called an author's agent or author's representative. Also one who acts on behalf of publishers to find special types of material or authors to develop that material.
Mailing-list broker An independent agent who represents either the buyer or the seller in supplying mailing lists to direct-mail advertisers.
Mailing-list cleaning Removing from a mailing list those names and addresses that have ceased to be of value.
Marketing plan Prepared for each title on a publisher's seasonal list, this plan itemizes the projected advertising, promotion, publicity, and sales activities and their associated costs. Included in the individual marketing plan are subsidiary rights and special sales transactions. Marketing plans are generally prepared after launch (concept) meetings for forthcoming titles and are subject to revision before and after sales conferences.
Mask In color separation photography, an intermediate photographic negative or positive used in color correction. In offset-lithography, opaque material used to protect open or selected areas of a printing plate during exposure.
Master A plate for a duplicating machine.
Mass market paperback A paperbound book distributed chiefly through traditional magazine channels, including newsstands, variety and drug stores, supermarkets, and other mass markets. Also marketed to general bookstores, college stores, and department stores and may be either an original publication that has never appeared in any other format or a reprint of a previously published hardcover or trade paperback edition here made available at a significantly lower price.
Merge To combine two or more mailing lists into a single list with elimination of duplicate names.
National Association of College Stores (NACS) A professional organization that began in 1922 under the name College Bookstore Association. Later it became the National Association of College Bookstores; later still, it adopted its present name to indicate the breadth of the merchandise carried by stores catering to college communities.
National Book Committee A nonprofit society founded in New York in 1954 and discontinued in 1974, devoted to the "wider and wiser use of books." The committee supported the freedom to read, encouraged the wider availability of books, and sponsored National Library Week, the National Book Awards, the National Medal for Literature, and studies related to books and reading. The committee cooperated particularly with the American Library Association and the Association of American Publishers, among other national groups.
Net price What a wholesaler or bookseller pays for a product after all discounts and allowances have been made.
Net pricing A method of determining a wholesale price without reference to a suggested retail price. Under net pricing in the book industry, the publisher sets the price of a book to the bookseller or wholesaler, and each bookselling and wholesaling operation establishes its own resale price to the consumer, thus determining its own margin of profit. No cover price is preprinted on the book or jacket, and the retail price can vary from dealer to dealer.
On-demand book, on-demand printing A book manufactured as a single copy at the time a customer wants to buy it. On-demand systems are still not common, being used primarily to produce copies of scholarly works. However, new technology for on-demand printing, based on computers and laser imaging, is developing rapidly and should affect certain types of scientific, technical, and business publishing in the next few years.
Overrun In printing Copies printed in excess of the specified quantity. Printing agreements usually specify allowable overruns.
Page makeup In stripping, assembly of all elements to make up a page. In phototypesetting, the electronic assembly of a page on a video display terminal and on the phototypesetter.
Panchromatic Photographic film sensitive to all visible colors.
Paper master A paper printing plate used on an offset-duplicator. The image is made by hand drawing, typewriter, or electrophotography.
Paperback original A work of either fiction or nonfiction published in paperback format without having been available previously as a hardcover. It may be a mass market paperback or a trade/quality paperback.
Paperback rights The rights to publish a book in a mass market or trade paperback, as opposed to hardcover, format. The rights may be to a paperback original or to a paperback reprint. Rights to mass market and trade paperback editions are usually negotiated separately, but they can be combined in a package deal.
Parent company A company that owns a controlling interest in another company.
Partial remaindering Selling off at sale or remainder prices an excess portion of a publisher's unsold stock of a book, rather than the entire stock. Thus, some part of the stock remains in print to be sold at the publisher's list price.
Photo-composing In phototypesetting, the assembly of separate elements into an integrated page layout. In platemaking, exposure of multiple images on a plate. More correctly called step-and-repeat.
Photomechanical Pertaining to any platemaking process using photographic negatives or positives exposed onto plates or cylinders covered with photosensitive coatings.
Pica Printer's unit of measurement used principally in measuring lines. One pica equals approximately 1/6 of an inch.
Plant costs Although the components will vary from publisher to publisher according to accounting procedures, these generally are the one-time costs in manufacturing a book, such as those involved in preparation of artwork and illustrations, composition, plates, etc.
Preprint A copy of a book or section of a book or periodical usually issued in a limited paperbound quantity for some special purpose before publication date.
Presensitized plate In photomechanics, a metal or paper plate that has been precoated with a light-sensitive coating.
Press kit An information package, usually a folder with flaps or pockets, containing a press release, glossy photo of the author, information from the book, advance quotes or reviews for the book. Used as a publicity or sales promotion tool.
Press proofs In color reproduction, a proof of a color subject on a printing press, in advance of the production run.
Press release An information sheet about a book and its author, used as a publicity tool.
Publication date The date, more and more theoretical, when a book is made available to the public. The theory holds that a book will be released on publication date in retail outlets across the country; this is the day on which the publisher hopes to orchestrate the appearances of book reviews, advertisements, publicity, and perhaps an author tour. To achieve simultaneous introduction of a book throughout the country, publishers must send out review copies and start the promotion and distribution processes well in advance of publication date. Today more and more publishers ship books up to several months ahead of the publication date, which has become known as the "release date."
Publisher's representative / sales representative A salesperson who visits prospective customers of a publisher (booksellers, librarians, university department heads, school authorities, wholesalers, etc.) to show samples of or literature about the firm's forthcoming titles, as well as backlist items, to obtain orders for them. This person also transmits complaints and assists in promotional activities.
Remainder A publisher's overstock of a title whose sales have slackened, offered at a greatly reduced price through jobbers and booksellers. A remainder may sell so well that a publisher or wholesaler will be induced to reprint an inexpensive hardcover edition of the remainder and advertise it accordingly. Normally no royalties are paid on this stock reduction.
Reprint A term used in the publishing industry to indicate a new printing of a book.
Reproduction proof In composition, the proof of a type form for purposes of photographic reproduction.
Returns Unsold books returned for cash or credit to the publisher. The publisher's stated terms for doing this constitute its return policy. Whereas hardcover trade publishers require that unsold books be returned in "mint condition" for full credit, mass market publishers usually receive stripped returns, i.e., covers that have been removed from unsold copies.
Review copies Copies of a newly published work dispatched by its publisher without charge to obtain a review, notice, or record in trade, consumer, or professional publications.
Right-angle fold In binding, a term used for two or more folds that are at 90-degree angles to each other.
Rights Rights to a literary property include the following: prepublication serial (first serial rights); book publication, including book club; postpublication serial (second serial rights); book reprint; dramatization; musical comedy; amateur leasing; motion picture (commercial and noncommercial); radio, television; mechanical, electronic, or xerographic reproduction or other kinds covered in the inclusive term reprographic reproduction; condensation and abridgment; anthology; translation; quotation; merchandising and other commercial exploitation rights. Most of these are also commonly referred to as subsidiary rights and are governed by the prevailing copyright law.
Royalty A compensation to the author or owner of a copyright paid by the publisher, usually on the percentage of the list price of the book (net price in academic or university press publishing) on each copy sold, but sometimes paid on a percentage of the wholesale price or on the publisher's total receipts. No royalty is paid on review copies or on copies sold as remainders. A lower rate is paid on reprints, book club editions, and many scholarly works and on copies sold by mail order or exported.
Running costs The variable costs, such as paper, printing, and binding, in manufacturing a book. These costs are determined by the size of the print run.
Running head A title repeated at the top of each page.
Saddle stitch Binding a publication by means of staples placed through the fold at the spine. Pages lie flat, but there is a limit to the thickness of a publication that can be stapled this way.
Saddle wire In binding, to fasten a booklet by wiring it through the middle fold of the sheets.
Sales conference Usually convened two or three times a year (depending on the number of selling seasons a house may have), this meeting brings together a publisher's sales, marketing, and editorial staff to introduce new titles in the forthcoming season. Marketing plans for each title will have been prepared in advance, and may be adjusted according to the sales force's response to the title-by-title presentations by editors at the conference.
Seasonal catalog Publishers produce an announcement catalog describing each book to be published in the season (typically Spring and Fall).
Second serial rights The right to reproduce in a periodical either a portion or the entirety of a book in one or more parts after the book's official publication date.
Serif The short cross-lines at the ends of the main strokes of many characters in some typefaces.
Signature In printing and binding, the name given to a printed sheet after it has been folded.
Single-title order plan (STOP) A system devised and promoted by the American Booksellers Association to maximize discount and minimize handling on special orders of one or more copies of a single title. Cooperating publishers will grant full trade discount, although some will offer less, to dealers using the prescribed single-title order form available from ABA.
Special-interest publishing Publishing that addresses a specific and sometimes rather limited topic, one that would appeal only to those people who share a common interest in the topic.
Special order To a bookseller, an order for a single copy of a book not in stock, handled at the customer's request. Because it requires special handling, and sometimes involves a short discount or no discount, the bookseller frequently adds a nominal service charge to the transaction to cover this cost.
Special release Any mass market title that receives listing, attention, and promotional effort apart from the monthly publication list. A mass market house will present as a special release a title that has exceptional merit or commercial potential or that is particularly timely or newsworthy, and may promote that title individually with a special brochure or sell sheet and other order forms.
Special sales The book sales a publisher makes to nontraditional customers via nontraditional distribution. In addition to servicing the customary bookstores, a publisher may attempt to increase income derived from a book through bulk sales at a special rate to a company that will distribute the book to its employees or to its clients for its own purpose.
Spine The backbone or bound edge of a publication that has a square back. The square back is a result of binding by perfect binding or by side-wire binding.
Standard Address Number (SAN) A unique identification code for each address of each organization in or served by the book industry. This includes book publishers, book wholesalers, book distributors, book retailers, college bookstores, libraries, library binders, and serial vendors. The SAN serves to facilitate such activities as purchasing, billing, shipping, receiving, paying, crediting, and refunding. Assignment of code numbers is centrally administered by the R. R. Bowker Company.
Standing order An order to a publisher, wholesaler, or dealer to supply each succeeding issue of a publication, particularly of an annual or serial, as it is published, until notified otherwise.
Stet A proofreader's mark, written in the margin, signifying that copy marked for corrections should remain as it was.
Stripping In offset-lithography, the positioning of negatives (or positives) on a flat (goldenrod) prior to platemaking.
Subscription agent An organization that handles the entering and renewal of subscriptions (primarily journals) for a library.
Subsidy publishing The publishing of works of specialized interest to a small group (e.g., a corporation or local historical society) or of scholarly works generally not expected to be a commercial success, for which a grant or fund is provided by the author or by a foundation or other institution to cover cost wholly or in part. A work so published may also be called a sponsored book, especially if the sponsoring organization or person has guaranteed to purchase a significant quantity of the edition. Second, another term for vanity publishing, in which a book is produced with little or no regard to the merit of the work at the author's expense and at no risk to the publisher.
Syndication The sale of all or a portion of an original work to a number of publications, often newspapers, that will usually print the material more or less simultaneously.
Television rights The right to adapt a book or other property into a television program or series.
Third-party distribution A book that the sponsor in educational, public service, and public relations programs distributes to consumers, dealers, stockholders, plant visitors, employees, etc., usually at no cost and at no consideration.
Trade books Books intended for the general public, and marketed with trade discount through bookstores and to libraries, as distinct from textbooks, subscription books, etc.
Trade edition An edition of a book intended for sale through bookstores to the general public or for general circulation in libraries, as distinct from an edition of the same book intended for some other use, such as in the classroom.
Trade/quality paperback A higher-priced paperbound book marketed through normal book trade channels. It can be an original title or a reprint published by either a hardcover house or a mass market house. Showing up in an extremely wide variety of sizes and shapes, trade paperbacks are generally made of materials superior to those used for mass market paperbacks. It is becoming common for a hardcover house to publish a title simultaneously as a hardcover book and as a less expensive trade paperback.
Universal Product Code (UPC) A preprinted product and price code consisting of vertical bars that appears on the backs of mass market paperbacks and innumerable other consumer goods. UPCs are electronically scanned for sale prices in supermarkets and other mass market chains.
Unearned revenue A revenue received in advance for which the goods will not be delivered or the service performed during the current accounting period.
Uniform chart of accounts An orderly arrangement of assets, liability, capital, revenues, and expense accounts making up the general ledger.
Unit cost The amount of manufacturing costs incurred in the completion or production of one unit of product; usually computed by dividing total production costs for a job or period of time by the respective number of units produced.
Web press A press that prints from rolls of paper. The paper is called the web.
Wholesaler In trade book distribution, a large-volume buyer of primarily mass market paperback titles for distribution to book racks in newspaper and magazine stands, bookstores, and similar outlets. Traditionally, wholesalers have differed significantly from jobbers in the services they provide, which include title selection, delivery, rack stocking, and removing slow-moving inventory. In recent years, some blurring of the distinction between wholesalers and jobbers has occurred, as wholesalers carry non-mass market titles, and jobbers carry mass market titles.
Widow In composition, a single line from the end of a paragraph that appears at the top of a page by itself; frowned upon in good typography.
World rights Publication rights to a particular work throughout the world, frequently restricted to a particular format. A publisher that has acquired world hardcover rights to a specific book will usually sell hardcover publication rights to houses in various countries, which may publish the work in its original language or, more likely, in translation.